The distillation process is that a fresh or dried plant (depending on the type) is placed in almost boiling water or heated by steam. When exposed to high temperatures, volatile fractions are released from it due to the destruction of the plant cell structure. Essential oil, in the form of molecules that are mixed with vapor molecules, rise through the tube through a cooling tank, where they again take on a liquid state of aggregation. The liquid that is collected in a special compartment is a mixture of essential oil and water; it is easily separated into layers, since the density of water and oil differ.
The method of steam distillation gives a good yield of essential oils in a fairly pure form. In addition, the water that comes in contact with the distilled plant is also saturated with a small amount of aromatic substances. Used for this process several times, the water becomes widely known "rose" water, or lavender or any other depending on the plant, and is used as toilet water for skin care.
However, for all its simplicity, it is not universal enough; preliminary selection of individual conditions for each plant is required. Temperature, pressure, distillation time - everything needs to be adjusted to achieve an optimal balance between process profitability and oil quality, since higher pressure and higher temperatures can enhance the process of extracting essential oils, but can reduce the quality of the product.